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ITFC honors Professor F. I.B Kayanja for his dedication to the conservation of Bwindi’s Mountain Gorillas

On the 17th and 18th July, ITFC and UWA held an annual research information sharing workshop in Ruhija, Bwindi whose theme was “25 years of research collaboration between Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA), partners and Mbarara University Science and Technology (MUST), realizing effective and sustainable partnership in conservation”. One individual who has been at the helm of this collaborative research between UWA and partners is none other than the distinguished Prof. F.I.B Kayanja. Indeed there was no better time of honoring his contributions towards the establishment of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park and the conservation of its Gorillas than at this year’s ITFC/UWA information sharing workshop. Paying tribute to Prof. Kayanja for his commendable service in conservation was undoubtly  the biggest highlight of the workshop.

Prof. Kayanja, who will be retiring from public service on the 24th October 2014, was very pivotal in the establishment of a research institute of MUST-the Institute of Tropical Forest Conservation (ITFC) and gazettement of Bwindi forest into a national park in 1991. Before then, the Bwindi’s mountain gorillas were on the verge of extinction. By the establishment of the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Bwindi’s Gorillas were saved from extinction a task Prof. Kayanja painstakingly achieved. Furthermore, ITFC was the first of its kind that that specialized in tropical forest ecology including research on Mountain Gorillas. ITFC has helped train many Ugandans and others in these fields since 1991. At this years workshop MUST with its field research institute (ITFC) was commemorating 25 years of partnership with UWA and other partners.

During the workshop, on behalf of ITFC, Dr. Robert Bitariho (the director-ITFC) surprised the whole entire workshop by presenting a surprise souvenir of a mountain gorilla painting to Prof. Kayanja. This was after he read out a long list of citations of Prof. Kayanja’s contributions to conservation in Uganda. The citation was concluded with a phrase from one UWA senior warden that Prof. Kayanja was a “god” father of conservation in Uganda. “I am greatly humbled” was a response from Prof. Kayanja while he received the souvenir.

Dr Robert Bitariho reads out a citation of Prof. Kayanja before presenting to him the souvenir with the help of BMCA Conservation Area Manager, Mr. Pontious Ezuma (to the left) and Bwindi Southern sector Chief warden, Mr. John Justice Tibesigwa (to the right).

Dr Robert Bitariho reads out a citation of Prof. Kayanja before presenting to him the souvenir with the help of BMCA Conservation Area Manager, Mr. Pontious Ezuma (to the left) and Bwindi Southern sector Chief warden, Mr. John Justice Tibesigwa (to the right).

Prof. Kayanja receiving the souvenir midst heavy applause from the audience.

Prof. Kayanja receiving the souvenir midst heavy applause from the audience.

Prof. Kayanja later blessed the occasion with a captivating key not speech, during which he emphasized that his contribution, General Moses Ali and Dr. Eric Edroma in the gazetting of Bwindi Impenetrable forest as a national park was to be highly revered. Prof. Kayanja astonished the audience when he made a very generous offer for his support in all matters of ITFC even during his retirement. “ITFC is my brainchild,” he added, while an enchanted audience listened with bated breath as he spoke about the importance of handling the legacy that ITFC is. “The challenge I leave with you is to be satisfied with the fruits of your labor in your youth, just as I have done.” He concluded his speech by thanking and appreciating all partners and their contribution towards conservation, especially for the dream that ITFC and UWA have become.

Prof. Kayanja giving  a keynote speech at the recently concluded ITFC/UWA information sharing workshop, Ruija

Prof. Kayanja giving a keynote speech at the recently concluded ITFC/UWA information sharing workshop in Ruhija

Several speakers would agree, that it’s never an easy task to speak after Prof. Kayanja. However, many of the well-prepared workshop participants stood up to the challenge and embraced this unique opportunity to stand on the same podium to present their research findings. Catch these proceedings in our next blog.

Best regards,

Emmanuel Akampulira, Robert Bitariho and Badru Mugerwa

Twenty five years of research collaboration between UWA, partners and MUST, realizing effective and sustainable partnership in conservation

…the theme it was for this year’s ITFC/UWA information sharing workshop. The days were 17th and 18th July 2014 when all roads led to Ruhija, for a remarkably successful annual research dissemination workshop. Organized by ITFC, UWA and their partners, this year’s workshop was exceptional in three special ways. Firstly, ITFC was celebrating 25 years of partnership with UWA and several of its partners. Secondly, it was ITFC’s celebration of 25 years of Mbarara University of Science and Technology’s (MUST) existence. Thirdly, it was a tribute to Professor Frederick I.B Kayanja who will be retiring from public service on the 24th October 2014. Prof. Kayanja is the founding father of ITFC and a former board member of Uganda National Parks (now UWA) and whose concerted efforts helped Bwindi to attain its national park status. No wonder, this year’s attendance out-matched all the previous year’s with 80 participants from all corners of the region.

The workshop attracted participants from twelve academic and conservation organizations, local government, ITFC Alumni and student interns. Prof. Kayanja led the MUST delegation that included all the Deans and Directors of the different faculties and Institutes at MUST. The Bwindi-Mgahinga Conservation Area Manager led the UWA delegation. Representatives from the International Gorilla Conservation Programme (IGCP), Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project (MGVP), Bwindi Mgahinga Conservation Trust (BMCT), Conservation Through Public Health (CTPH), Greater Virunga Transboundary Collaboration (GVTC), Budongo Conservation Field Station (BCFS), Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (MPI-EVA), Unite for The Environment (UNITE), Fauna and Flora International (FFI) and Gorilla Organization. Below in pictorial are the highlights of the workshop. Please see our blog for how ITFC thanked and appreciated Prof. Kayanja for his honorable and committed service to ITFC, Bwindi and Uganda’s biodiversity conservation.

Group photo of workshop participants

Group photo of workshop participants

The BMCA Conservation Area Manager, Mr Pontious Ezuma  presentting the BMCA management plan

The BMCA Conservation Area Manager, Mr Pontious Ezuma presentting the BMCA management plan

Dr Viola Nyakato (MUST)  shares her experience on gender issues and land tenure

Dr Viola Nyakato (MUST) shares her experience on gender issues and land tenure

Dr Bernard Ssebide from MGVP a.k.a gorilla doctors assured the audience Uganda was better prepared for any outbreak of Ebola

MGVP’s Dr Bernard Ssebide assured the audience Uganda was better prepared for any outbreak of Ebola

Dr Simon Anguma, Dean, Faculty of Science at MUST during one of the sessions as a chair

Dr Simon Anguma, Dean, Faculty of Science at MUST during one of the sessions as a chair

Mr Desi Tibamanya aka Bwana Desi (ITFC Finance and Administration Officer) assuring guests that they were not eating bush meat but goat’s meat

Mr Desi Tibamanya aka Bwana Desi (ITFC Finance and Administration Officer) assuring guests that they were not eating bush meat but goat’s meat

This  is what happens when conservationists meet Koffi Olomide

This is what happens when conservationists meet Koffi Olomide

Emmanuel, Robert and Badru

THE VICE-CHANCELLOR’S VISIT

On May 24th 2014, the Institute of Tropical Forest Conservation (ITFC) was crowned with a visit from the vice chancellor (VC) of Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST), Professor Frederick Kayanja. The ITFC staff led by the director Dr. Robert Bitariho and Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) Bwindi officials cordially received the VC. The UWA officials present were Mr. John Justice Tibesigwa (senior warden in charge Bwindi) and Mr. James Busiku (warden Ruhija sector).

During his one-day visit, the ITFC and UWA staff were honored to informal discussions with the VC. The VC stated that since its inception 23 years ago, ITFC has been on the front line of bringing attention to the otherwise ignored conservation and social aspects of research within communities and the national park. ITFC has continuously and thoroughly delivered research output to UWA and other policy makers to guide them in sustainable conservation and management of Bwindi and Mgahinga National parks.

The VC appreciated the good work done and described ITFC as a ‘reliable friend’. He encouraged continued partnerships with other institutions such as the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and UWA in order to achieve its set goals. He emphasized that partnerships speed up realization of more research work and paves way for new development agendas. He also informed the attentive crowd of MUST’s full support to ITFC and its staff. The VC  later  made a short-guided tour around the ITFC campus. The tour was closed with a warmly served lunch at the director’s residence. Below are the pictorial highlights of the VC’s visit to ITFC.

The ITFC director shows the VC a selection of published researches from Bwindi and ITFC.

The ITFC director shows the VC a selection of peer-reviewed published researches from Bwindi and ITFC.

The VC on a guided tour to the ethno-botanical garden

The VC on a guided tour to the ethno-botanical garden

ITFC  and UWA staff pose for a group photo with the VC

The ITFC and UWA staff pose for a group photo with the VC

Duncan and Badru

 

HIGH POWERED DELEGATION FROM MINISTRY OF TOURISM VISITS ITFC

This is not an April fool’s day joke! The day was on the 3rd April 2014, a day that will always remain memorable for the Institute of Tropical Forest Conservation (ITFC). ITFC was honoured to host a high powered delegation from the ministry of Tourism, Wildlife and Antiquities. The delegation was led by none other than the Minister of Tourism, Wildlife and Antiquities, Hon. Dr. Maria Mutagamba and comprised of the Permanent secretary, Ambassador Patrick Mugoya, Commissioner Mrs Grace Aulo Mbabazi, Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) board chairman,  Mr. Benjamin Otto and the Executive Director of UWA Dr Andrew Seguya. Other high ranking officials from the ministry of tourism also attended including all members of the UWA board and staff. The delegation was on a tour of the Bwindi Mgahinga conservation Area (BMCA) and was later scheduled to launch the BMCA management plan (2013-2023) that ITFC played a crucial role in formulating. The management plan is scheduled to be launched on the 4th of April 2014.

The ITFC director  explaining to the minister how ITFC works

The ITFC director explaining to the minister how ITFC works

The delegation was welcomed to ITFC by the director Dr Robert Bitariho and staff. The director then introduced ITFC staff to the delegation and gave the visitors a tour of ITFC offices and facilities.  In his address to the delegation, the director gave a brief background of how ITFC started as a project in 1987 researching on Mt Gorillas, the Impenetrable Forest Conservation Project (IFCP).  He mentioned that the IFCP project was led then by a researcher from the New York Zoological Society Dr Tom Butynsky. The project was later to be established as a research station of Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST) as ITFC with the help of Professor Fredrick Kayanja. The director stressed that because of research on the Mt gorillas, ITFC influenced together with Prof. Kayanja the creation of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in 1991. He mentioned some of ITFC donors as Uganda Government (through MUST), WWF, WCS, USAID and other partners. The director mentioned that ITFC works very closely with UWA in answering park management questions. The director talked about the accomplishments of ITFC since it was started and the challenges it faces. The main challenge mentioned was sustainable funding of ITFC activities.  He also talked about ongoing programmes and ITFC’s plans for the future.

 The Director addressing the delegation

The Director addressing the delegation

The delegation was impressed with the work ITFC carries out and was very enthusiastic with questions and suggestions for sustainable funding of research. To bluntly put it, the minister jokingly said that when she retires, she will have to come to ITFC for research since the facilities available were conducive for research and writing. She cracked the joke in good humour, and asked the director to let her come back for research in future. The Minister playfully stated that this would be on condition that she would be exempted from paying park entry fees. The director jokingly responded to her banter by asking her to be friendly with the Executive Director UWA if she wants free entry to the park. Dr Seguya shyly brushed off the joke.

Dr Andrew Seguya (UWA, ED) put the “icing on the cake” he commended ITFC’s work in research and training that facilitates UWA in managing Bwndi and Mgahinga National parks. He stressed that ITFC has been and continues to be an important partner with UWA more especially in Ecological and socio-economical research and monitoring.  Dr Seguya was enthusiastic for more and expansive work between UWA and ITFC in the future.

The minister signs the visitors’ book as the Executive Director of UWA look on.

The minister signs the visitors’ book as the Executive Director of UWA looks on.

The minister thanked ITFC staff for their commitment to conservation in the Albertine region and Uganda at large.  She also thanked MUST and other funding partners to ITFC for their support. The overall feeling of the delegation about ITFC was overwhelming, with praises of ITFC work and all of them promised to come back for a longer visit.  In the words of our beloved ITFC accountant, Mr Desi: “This visit strengthens ITFC’s partnership with government in conservation and sustainable development”.

The full list of delegatation is included here:

Name                                                                      Title

Hon Dr Maria Mutagamba                               Minister of Tourism, Wildlife and Antiquities

Ambassador Patrick Mugoya                           Permanent Secretary of Ministry of Tourism

Mr Benjamin Otto                                            Chairman board of Directors UWA

Dr Cladys Kalema Zikusoka                            UWA board Member

Mr Mani Khan                                                  UWA board Member

Captain John Emily Otekat                               UWA board member

Mrs Crace Aulo Mbabazi                                  UWA board member

Mr Boniface Byamukama                                 UWA board member

Dr Andrew Seguya                                            Executive Director UWA

Mr John Makombo                                            Director Conservation UWA

Mr Charles Tumwesigye                                   Deputy Director Conservation UWA

Mr Chemonges                                                  Director Legal UWA

Mr Edgar Buhunga                                            Director Planning and EIA UWA

Mr Pontius Ezuma                                             Conservation Area Manger BMCA

Mr Christopher Masaba                                     Senior Warden in Charge of Mgahinga

Emmanuel Akampurila and Robert Bitariho

ITFC hosts a successful an eight-day international summer field school

Three months of intense preparations by ITFC pulled- off a fantastic first-ever-international summer school to be hosted on its campus. The Volkswagen Foundation financed summer school attracted over thirty participants from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Germany, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST) jointly organized the summer school with the Universities of Frankfurt and Giessen from Germany.

Participants were trained in practical research methods and techniques of freshwater ecology assessment. Participants also enjoyed several guided walks through the dense and rugged terrain of the beautiful Bwindi. Notable was a steep and a very wet walk to the Mubwindi swamp, where participants got soaked from an afternoon heavy downpour. Other visited sites included River Munyaga, which is located in the northern part of the park; only a few minutes walk from the national park headquarters. Participants collected water samples, which they carried back to the ITFC for laboratory analysis.

The international summer school was closed off in a fun style on Sunday, 8th December 2013 with entertainment from the Batwa cultural dance and drama group. The renown ITFC DJ, then wrapped up the evening with a variety of dance music that kept many glued on the dance floor till late. No wonder, several of the summer school participants described their eight-day stay at ITFC as “memorable”. Below is a pictorial highlight of the summer school events.

Participants preparing water samples for laboratory analysis

Participants preparing water samples for laboratory analysis

A participant at work in the ITFC laboratory

A participant at work in the ITFC laboratory

The Batwa cultural dance and drama group entertaining participants

The Batwa cultural dance and drama group entertaining participants.

Yey, party time!!

Yey, party time!!

Cheers,

Badru

 

 

Responding to Human Wildlife Conflict: The Planning progression of Nkuringo Buffer zone Management Plan (NBZMP) on board again!

The raison d’être why Gorillas are spilling over to community land are not yet known despite the rich diversity of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (Bwindi). In rejoinder to human wildlife conflict between the communities of Nkuringo and the Mountain Gorillas and other fauna in Bwindi, Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) together with its partners including the International Gorilla Conservation Programme (IGCP), ITFC, Nkuringo Community Conservation Development Fund (NCCDF), Kisoro District Local Government (KLG) came together to generate yet another strategic management plan for the next five years (2014-2018).

ITFC’s very own Medard Twinamatsiko who is a member of the planning committee fully participated in a week closed door planning session in Kisoro. The UWA’s Senior Planning Officer –Richard Kapere and the Senior Warden Southern Sector John Justice Tibesigwa facilitated the sessions. Other members included; Stephen Asuma- Country Representative IGCP, Olivia Biira (Community Conservation Warden-UWA),Raymond Kato-Ecological Monitoring Warden- UWA, Richard Munezero (KDLG), Innocent and Auleria from NCCDF.

The seven days interface was not an easy one but greatly successful. It involved desk reviews and evaluations as well reconnaissance visits to the Nkuringo Buffer zone. The two days of field work were too enjoyable in the beginning but hectic and kawa in the afternoon epoch. It rained cats and dogs with most of the planning team members caught unaware of the somber dropdowns in the hills of Nkuringo. There was hardly any sanctuary for the planning squad and therefore had to succumb to the nature vagaries. Medard and Richard had no choice but to succumb to the heavy down pours since they had not carried water proof jackets. This was a good lesson for the next field day.

Many events were observed by the planning team. These included; the regeneration of the inner zone, the emergency of exotic plant species and poor maintenance of the Mauritius hedge fence by the local communities. Interesting to note was that tea planting has taken a serious route in the outer zone with almost ¾ of the land planted. This activity is being undertaken by National Agriculture Advisory Services through its sub contract- Kigezi Tea Company- a local company. Many local community members have tested on the syrupy dime being offered to plant tea. It was also witnessed that a road is being constructed by the local people to connect to the tea area. Such developments are highly welcomed by the local residents of Nkuringo and are optimistic of future prospects! IGCP is acknowledged for facilitating the planning process with the required logistics. Keep watch on this space!

Reconnaissance field discussions in the outer buffer zone

Reconnaissance field discussions in the outer buffer zone

 

Raining cats and dogs on the planning team in the outer cleared bufferzone

Raining cats and dogs on the planning team in the outer cleared buffer zone

A tired but  not retired team in the newly constructed road down to the buffer zone in Nteko

A tired but not retired team in the newly constructed road down to the buffer zone in Nteko

My warm regards,

Medard

An international Field school comes to ITFC

The Institute of Tropical Forest Conservation will again be at the center stage later this year when it hosts an international summer field school. The summer school is jointly organized by Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST), and the Universities of Frankfurt and Giessen from Germany. The Volkswagen Foundation finances the summer school.

Themed “Understanding Freshwater Ecology as the Basis for Sustainable Ecosystem Management”, the summer school will train graduate students in practical research methods and techniques of freshwater ecology assessment. The students will visit different aquatic sites in and around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (Bwindi). The summer school participants will also visit the different Batwa communities around Bwindi.

Thirty-five participants including students and lecturers from Uganda, Germany, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo and Tanzania will take part in the summer school. The school, second of its kind, to be hosted at ITFC will take place from 01-09 December 2013. Below are pictures of some of the ITFC facilities which will be used by the summer school.

The student's dormitory at ITFC

The student’s dormitory at ITFC

A well stocked library at ITFC

A well stocked library at ITFC

The ITFC herbarium

The ITFC herbarium

I will be following the summer school events very closely. Please keep visiting http://bwindiresearchers.wildlifedirect.org for real-time updates from the summer school.

Best wishes,

Badru

ITFC hosts the Annual Ranger Based Monitoring workshop

From 11 to 13 September 2013, ITFC hosted an annual Ranger Based Monitoring (RBM) workshop in Ruhija. The workshop was organized and funded by the International Gorilla Conservation Programme (IGCP). The aim was to share experiences with the RBM system in the Greater Virunga Massif and Bwindi protected areas. The RBM system employs field rangers to collect data crucial for protected area management. The RBM is thus, a basic management tool for ecosystem monitoring in the Virunga and Bwindi ecosystems. The RBM has been running in the massif for 15 years since 1998. The two-day workshop attracted several wildlife park managers, veterinary doctors and researchers from Uganda, Rwanda and DRC. Below, I gladly share some of the workshop highlights.

UWA Senior Warden John Justice Tibesgwa officially opening the workshop.

The UWA Senior Warden John Justice Tibesigwa officially opening the workshop.

What an attentive audience?

What an attentive audience?

Anna Behm Masozera (IGCP director) giving a plenary at the workshop

The IGCP director, Anna Behm Masozera  giving a plenary at the workshop

Best wishes,

Badru

Badru’s story nominated for a Film Festival Award!

I have been off for a while. I congratulate Andrew and Lucy for a job well done. They kept you updated with the on-going ITFC research and other activities through a continued flow of blogs.

Here is an update of what has happened during my absentia. Some of you must have already watched/heard about it. I am talking about the ‘Badru’s story’……….

Sometime last year, Benjamin Drummond and Sara Joy Steele visited Bwindi. Benj and Sara are a documentary team (bdsjs.com) that specializes in multimedia stories about people, nature and climate. During their visit, they followed Badru and his team through the rugged terrain of park, capturing every detail of the camera trap setting, tree measurement and climate station maintenance procedures.  A product of their trip was a short movie documenting the TEAM Network’s activities in Bwindi.

The approximately six-minute movie titled ‘Badru’s story’ starring ITFC and TEAM Network’s very own Badru Mugerwa can be watched in HD for free on line http://bdsjs.com/client/ci/. This is the first in a three-part series that are yet to be produced. The movie also featured Dr. Douglas Sheil (ITFC, CIFOR and Southern Cross University), Raymond Kato and Job Nahabwe (Uganda Wildlife Authority) and ITFC field assistants (Lawrence Tumuhagirwe and Avetino Nkwasibwe).

The great news is that ‘Badru’s story’ was nominated for the 40th Telluride Film Festival Award. This is very exciting to Badru, bdsjs.com, ITFC, UWA and the TEAM Network.  We hope the movie wins the award. Fingers crossed!!!

Below I present to you some of the highlights from the movie  ‘a pictorial movie trailer’. Please enjoy.

The ITFC/UWA/TEAM Network camera trapping team in Bwindi. From left to right: Avetino, Badru, Lawrence (ITFC) and Job (UWA). Standing at the back is Moses (local guide).

The ITFC/UWA/TEAM Network camera trapping team in Bwindi. From left to right: Avetino, Badru, Lawrence (ITFC) and Job (UWA). Standing at the back is Moses (local guide).

On all four:  Badru doing a 'walk test' in front of a camera trap during camera trap setting

On all four: Badru imitates a walking animal by doing a ‘walk test’ in front of a camera trap during camera trap setting.

Measuring a ‘problem tree’: Badru demonstrating how to take diameter measurements of a buttressed tree.

Measuring a ‘problem tree’: Badru demonstrating how to take diameter measurements of a buttressed tree.

Uuhm,  Bwindi’s  beautiful rugged landscape covered by the early morning mist

Bwindi’s beautiful rugged landscape covered by the early morning mist

 

How would we ever live without Bwindi? Ecosystem services along the boundary of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park.

 Ecosystem services along the boundary of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park.

Sincerely,

Badru

 

 

Bwindi’s wild bananas

It’s one of those times of year at ITFC when everyone is busy analyzing and writing up their completed research and we chose this opportunity to talk to Frederick Ssasli about his interesting study conducted on the little known wild banana species (Ensete venticosum) in Bwindi.

The objective of his study  was to investigate the ecology of the wild banana by recording the animals that visited and utilised the plant’s fruit and flowers. Most fruiting plants in Bwindi are seasonal, however these wild bananas are special as they fruit and flower all year round, possibly providing a reliable ‘fall back’ food source for animals. Little is known about wild bananas and even less in Bwindi, so Frederick expected some exciting results.

A convenient site was chosen less than a kilometre from ITFC’s premises. Ten camera traps were set up, each on a different tree, five focusing on the flowers and the rest on the fruit. The study ran from 2011 to 2012 in the months of November to April and has just come to an end. 

Now for the results, what everyone had been waiting for! The most frequent visitors to the fruit included L’hoste monkeys, baboons, squirrels and mice which were viewed feeding on the ripe bananas, or in the L’Hoeste’s case, humorously squabbling over them (as they often do). The flowers’ visitors included some nectarivorous birds in the day and lots of bats (which are yet to be identified to the species level) and mice during the night. Even more interesting was the presence of the predatory two-tailed palm civet (Nandinia binotata) which was captured on several occasions visiting the flowers and in one case with a mouse in its mouth!

Two-spotted palm civet after catching a mouse

Two-spotted palm civet after catching a mouse

Bat on banana flower

Bat on banana flower

L’Hoest’s monkey on banana fruit

This study has set the stage for further research at Bwindi to find out more about these inter-specific relationships and to test the list of hypotheses stimulated by each camera picture. There are also some interesting implications for crop raiding. Could the conservation of wild bananas help in preventing increased crop-raiding incidents by providing an alternative food source in the low fruiting season? Could the wild banana be a new keystone species (a species which has a large effect its environment and that many species rely on)?

We hope to see some interesting papers in the near future!

On a side note this is our (Lucy and Andrew’s) last blog. We hope you enjoyed them!

squirrel on wild banana

squirrel on wild banana